The Significant Applications of Sodium Hydroxide In Various Industries



Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye or caustic soda, is of importance to not one but various industries. Its chemical formula is NaOH and it is described as an odorless, white crystalline substance. It is available, commercially, either in solid form like sticks, pellets, and chips, or in the form of solution in water with different concentrations.

Originally, caustic soda is used in the manufacture of soap but it has become valuable in many other industries over time. In chemical manufacturing, for instance, it is helpful in pH control, acid neutralization, and off-gas scrubbing. Another notable use of the substance is in the manufacture of cleaning agents such as oven cleaners and drain cleaners, which are common household products. Usually, clogged pipes are with a mixture of fats and grease. What happens is that those cleaners that contain caustic soda turn the fats to soap, which dissolves in water. Moreover, heat is given off when the substance dissolves in water and the heat produced aids in melting the clog.

Another industry where caustic soda is valuable is the paper industry, and it is because the substance helps separate cellulose fibers from lignin. The freed cellulose fibers can then be formed into paper. Likewise, it helps bleach paper to achieve its required whiteness and brightness. The petroleum and natural gas industry, on the other hand, make use of the substance in removing acidic contaminants in gas and oil processing.

But did you know that sodium hydroxide is also used in the food industry? Yes, it is used in processes such as poultry scalding and chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables. It is likewise used in caramel coloring production and chocolate and cocoa processing. Furthermore, it is specifically of use in the production of a Scandinavian delicacy called lutefisk, which means lye fish. The substance is also responsible for the gelling of egg whites in the production of Century eggs. And, did you know that most yellow-colored Chinese noodles are made with lye-water, which are usually mistaken for containing egg?

Caustic soda or lye is also valuable in mining, textile processing, metal processing, rubber reclamation, glass making, water treatment, cotton mercerizing and scouring, and metal degreasing.

But of course, great care must be taken when storing and using the substance. When it is swallowed, it may result to severe burns of mouth, throat, and stomach, severe scarring of tissue, and death. Caustic soda ingestion symptoms include vomiting, bleeding, diarrhea, and fall in blood pressure. When it comes into contact with the skin and eyes, it may cause irritation, severe burns, permanent impairment of vision, and even blindness.

To avoid these, proper measures must be taken with regards to its storage and use. Its storage area must be cool and dry, and it must be kept away from strong acids, metals, and water. There must be adequate ventilation when using the substance. Wearing protective equipment is also important. To protect your eyes, wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles. To prevent it from coming into contact with your skin, wear protective gloves and clothing. First aid measures can also be given if an accident with regards to the use of the substance happens. When someone swallows it, for instance, large quantities of water or milk must be given to the victim. When it comes into contact with the skin, flush the skin with a lot of water for at least 15 minutes. The same thing must be done to the affected eyes when it comes into contact with the eyes.

Sodium hydroxide is truly an important chemical, with the many industries that make use of it to manufacture certain products, especially those that we get to use in our day-to-day living.

Jo is a writer for ReAgent Chemical Services Ltd (, a well-known UK stationed chemical manufacturer that manufactures, stocks and distributes an enormous range of premium chemicals. If your corporation is seeking superior quality chemical product for instance

Sodium Hydroxide

or has other industrial compound needs for purposes similar to chemical syntheses, analytical applications and cleaning then check out ReAgent Chemical Services Ltd.

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Sirius CEO visits congress

Friday, March 2, 2007

Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin appeared before a newly formed Antitrust Task Force, a sub-committee of the House Judiciary Committee, on Wednesday last week in Washington, D.C. to defend the proposed U.S. merger between XM and Sirius satellite radio services.

The hearing, carried live on C-SPAN, was attended by representatives from various competing broadcast companies. The representatives challenged the merger deal, and some speakers were openly hostile to Karmazin and to satellite radio in general, while other speakers were more civil.

Several times during the debate, the discussion centered on the failed merger deal between the two satellite television networks DirecTV and Echostar. The comparison between this proposed radio merger and the failed television merger was settled to some extent with an understanding that nearly all television viewers now use either cable or satellite to view available programming. Televised programming content is now delivered mainly in the form of a subscription, rather than airwave transmissions.

Unlike television programming, most radio listeners use over the air receivers to listen to free programming content supported advertisers.

“We come to this hearing with an open mind, but we recognize that the companies have the obligation to convince the Congress, the regulators, and most importantly, the American People that this combination will improve the competitive playing field and benefit consumers,” said John Conyers, the sub-committee chairman. To determine the legality of this merger, Congress first needs to decide whether a combined XM and Sirius would be a monopoly, as the only satellite radio provider in the United States, or whether the new company will actually be in competition with other forms of radio-like entertainment, according to Conyers. The hearing focused on alternatives such as Internet radio, terrestrial radio, portable audio devices, and emerging services, such as cell phone services and WiMax.

How To Choose The Right Cosmetic Dentist


Bill Buchanan –

The saying, a smile increases your face value, is really true. A good smile can enhance the beauty of the face. But not all are lucky to be blessed with a gorgeous smile. Cosmetic dentistry has proved to be a boon for people who want to enhance their smile and beautify their teeth. Here we offer some information on the options available for you.

Before undergoing any cosmetic dentistry treatment, find a cosmetic dentist who is a member of AACD (American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry). This ensures you are treated by a cosmetic dentist who has thoroughly mastered all the areas of his subject. Go through his portfolio before undergoing treatment. This gives you an idea of the quality of service you will get from the cosmetic dentist. Ask him to refer his patients and talk to them. This should give you the patients opinions on his work. Check out if the cosmetic dentist has been upgrading his knowledge and skills. He should be in touch with the latest developments in his field.

Before visiting a cosmetic dentist you should know the exact meaning of some of the terms, which are widely used:

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Braces: Braces are the most prevalent type of dentistry. An orthodontist puts them on teens from the age of 12. It straightens and realigns the teeth, makes your smile beautiful and prevents any jaw problems likely to occur in the future.

Beautification techniques: Teeth whitening, placing veneers and bonding on the teeth are the common procedures meant for beautification. There are no health benefits associated with these processes but increase your confidence.

Teeth whitening: Teeth whitening make your teeth whiter and brighter. You can do this either at home or at your dentists clinic. The cosmetic dentist bleaches your teeth and the process takes about an hour each time you undergo the treatment. Before using any commercial product at home, it is advisable to consult a cosmetic dentist. Our teeth react to different bleaches in different ways. Getting the right advice from your cosmetic dentist will give you the right product meeting your budget.

Bonding: The process of repairing our damaged tooth, hiding the exposed root or looking beautiful is known as bonding. First the tooth or teeth to be treated is cleaned and then the etching solution is applied to allow the resin composite to stick to the tooth. Then the resin matching the color of your tooth is used. This resin is shaped to resemble the structure of the normal tooth. Once the resin hardens, it is polished to the degree that it gels with the remaining teeth.

Veneering: Veneering is the process used to hide the fillings, broken or stained teeth or spaces in teeth. A thin layer of porcelain is fitted just above the tooth and is fixed at the spot. Veneering is also used to straighten the teeth immediately. A cosmetic dentist would be able to advice on the treatment time and rates.

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CanadaVOTES: NDP candidate Max Lombardi running in Cambridge

Friday, September 26, 2008

On October 14, 2008, Canadians will be heading to the polls for the federal election. New Democratic Party candidate Max Lombardi is standing for election in the riding of Cambridge. Lombardi is an information technology specialist who has lived in Cambridge for 25 years.

Held since 2004 by Conservative Gary Goodyear, the riding of Cambridge includes the city of Cambridge, Ontario and the Township of North Dumfries, Ontario. Also running in the riding are Gord Zeilstra (Liberal) and Scott Cosman (Green).

Wikinews contacted Max Lombardi, to talk about the issues facing Canadians, and what they and their party would do to address them. Wikinews is in the process of contacting every candidate, in every riding across the country, no matter their political stripe. All interviews are conducted over e-mail, and interviews are published unedited, allowing candidates to impart their full message to our readers, uninterrupted.

For more information, visit the campaign’s official website, listed below.

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Author Amy Scobee recounts abuse as Scientology executive

Monday, October 11, 2010

Wikinews interviewed author Amy Scobee about her book Scientology – Abuse at the Top, and asked her about her experiences working as an executive within the organization. Scobee joined the organization at age 14, and worked at Scientology’s international management headquarters for several years before leaving in 2005. She served as a Scientology executive in multiple high-ranking positions, working out of the international headquarters of Scientology known as “Gold Base”, located in Gilman Hot Springs near Hemet, California.

C Hanaimp131 An Analysis Of Certification Exam}

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Submitted by: Ryank Lane

An Analysis of C_HANAIMP131 Certification Exam

One of the most valuable certification exams offered by SAP is C_HANAIMP131 SAP Certified Application Associate (Edition 2013) – SAP HANA. This examination mainly focuses on modeling in SAP HANA and it is a kind of proof that the person has all the required knowledge and skills about the SAP HANA with some experience in the same field as well. C_HANAIMP131 Training Kits The person who gets this certificate qualifies himself for the position of SAP HANA application consultant.

The duration of C_HANAIMP131 SAP Certified Application Associate (Edition 2013) – SAP HANA exam is about 180 minutes. C_HANAIMP131 Certifications Book The test includes 80 questions and it can be given in English or Japanese language. It requires about 61% marks to clear this test.

Which Skills Are Measured In The Exam?

In the C_HANAIMP131 examination candidates will be asked about main and essential topics of SAP HANA. These are twelve topics altogether with each covering exam with different percentages. C_HANAIMP131 Drill Kits The list of the topics is as follows:

i. Optimization of data models and reporting (8% to 12%)

ii. Administration of data models (8% to 12%)

iii. Data Provisioning (less than 12%)

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iv. Security and Authorization (8% to 12%)

v. Data modeling – Analytical views (8% to 12%)

vi. Data modeling – Calculation views (8% to 12%)

vii. Advanced data modeling (8% to 12%)

viii. Reporting (less than 8%)

ix. Deployment scenarios of SAP HANA (less than 8%)

x. SAP HANA Live & Rapid Deployment Solutions for SAP HANA (less than 8%)

xi. Data modeling – SQL Script (less than 8%)

xii. Data modeling – Attribute views

All the above mentioned topics need to be at your fingertips to pass this certification exam at first attempt successfully.

Preparation Tips for This Exam

Every certification test requires specific kind of preparation related to the course. For clearing the SAP HANA certification exam some practical knowledge obtained from the experience via job is necessary. C_HANAIMP131 Practice Questions However, for more guidelines and learning the easiest way is the internet. There are thousands of sample questions, practice questions, dumps, training kits, and PDF files available on the internet free of cost.

Anyone with internet facility can access these free sources easily and get every kind of information and C_HANAIMP131 Study Material instantly. Moreover, various companies have also designed handy and worthwhile software that contain all the necessary information, study material and training kits for interested candidates. These kinds of software can be bought online at reasonable prices.

Apart from this, candidates can also look for the nearest training institutes in their area to brush up and improve their SAP HANA skills. C_HANAIMP131 Coaching Kits Many institutes with certified teachers for SAP HANA can even give learners more reliable and advanced knowledge than the online sources.

Benefits of Being Certified With C_HANAIMP131

It is quite obvious that C_HANAIMP131 SAP Certified Application Associate (Edition 2013) – SAP HANA is a worthwhile exam that leads to a valuable certification. This certificate can highly improve the profile of its bearer and make him superior in skills than his colleague. C_HANAIMP131 Preparation Guides This certification can also help candidates in getting better jobs and salaries.

About the Author: Examkill is your Best Source for Actual Dumps of IT certification Exams Regarding

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Category:May 31, 2010

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Category:May 31, 2010
Author: 7d5xMW

10 Mar

? May 30, 2010
June 1, 2010 ?
May 31

Airbus A380 safety test injures 33

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Airbus A380 safety test injures 33
Author: 7d5xMW

10 Mar

Monday, March 27, 2006

Thirty-three people were injured during a test of the Airbus A380, a double decker superjumbo jet, in Hamburg, Germany. Injuries include friction burns from sliding down the escape ramps and one broken leg. 853 volunteer “passengers” and 20 crew members took about 80 seconds to evacuate the aircraft, beating the test’s requirements by 10 seconds and over 200 people “rescued”. Only eight of the plane’s sixteen exits were used, as required by the test; the crew members were not told in advance which doors would open. The test was carried out in a dark hangar and the plane’s aisles were littered with debris to simulate actual emergency conditions.

The A380 will be the world’s largest passenger airliner, almost twice as large as the current largest airliner, the Boeing 747. Airbus has had 159 planes on order by 16 customers, and the first A380s will go to Singapore Airlines towards the end of the year.

This test was important to Airbus, as in August 2005 an Airbus A340 overshot the runway and 300 people escaped before the plane burst into flames. Infrared camera recordings of the test will be analyzed by authorities such as the European Aviation Safety Agency, while the US Federal Aviation Administration was present during the test. The European Aviation Safety Agency will confirm the test results this week; Airbus intends to repeat the test on Saturday if the aviation agency fails this attempt.

The volunteers, who were paid 60 euros (about US$72) and a meal, were from Airbus staff, sports clubs, and dancing clubs in the Hamburg area where the test took place. Airbus recruited people from clubs in order to get volunteers in good physical shape.

Two days later, the American and European aviation authorities (the FAA and EASA, respectively) officially certified the A380 to carry 853 passengers. This certification demonstrated that the test procedures use by Airbus met their respective standards.

BP says Gulf oil spill slowed as estimates of oil spilled increase

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BP says Gulf oil spill slowed as estimates of oil spilled increase
Author: 7d5xMW

10 Mar

Thursday, May 27, 2010

A US Coast Guard official said today that BP’s latest effort to plug the Gulf of Mexico oil spill has been successful in slowing the amount of oil leaking from the well.

The official, Admiral Thad Allen, said that the procedure, known as a “top kill” operation, has been able to block some of the leaking oil at the source, the top of the damaged well. The operation involves pumping material into the well to plug the leak before cement is used to permanently seal the leak. Allen said the operation has “been able to force mud down and not allow any hydrocarbons to come up.”

BP hasn’t confirmed the success of the top kill operation, saying only that the “operation is proceeding as we planned it,” and that there had been no major incidents thus far. Although the possibility of failure is still present, experts say that the longer the procedure continues, the less likely it will be that anything goes wrong.

The procedure began yesterday afternoon, after diagnostics on the damaged equipment on the ocean’s surface indicated that it could withstand the added pressure of the mud being pumped into the well. Although engineers involved with the operation wore concerned that the pressure of the mud might not be able to overcome that of the oil, that has thus far not been the case.

Separately, a group of US scientists announced new estimates of how much oil was flowing from the well, ranging from 12,000 to 25,000 barrels a day, far higher than BP’s original estimate of 5,000 barrels a day, a figure which BP warned was possibly inaccurate.

In a press conference Thursday afternoon, US president Barack Obama also announced new measures in response to the spill, which include:

In statements, Obama criticized the “scandalously close relationship” between government officials and oil companies in the past, saying that the Mineral Management Service, which is the agency responsible for monitoring off-shore drilling, had been corrupt for years.

What Is The Difference Between A Logbook Loan And A Payday Loan?}

Submitted by: Mark Aucamp

The Logbook loan really should not be confused with a payday loan. Both types of loans are generally very accessible as long as the borrower accepts lenders lending criteria before borrowing their money. The advantages of using a payday loan and a logbook loan is that they both provide an instant decision and you can receive the money on the same day with very little fuss.

A logbook loan is a completely different type of loan to a payday loan. A payday loan is a short term unsecured loan which allows the borrower to borrow money up to 750 at any one time and the money borrowed needs to be paid back in full with interest before the next pay day.

A Logbook Loan Resembles A Secured Homeowner Loan

The logbook loan works in the same way to a secured homeowner loan which is based on a property that is owned by the person borrowing the money. The property or the home will then be held as security by the lender if the loan is not repaid or the borrower defaults on the repayment arrangements. The borrower could lose their property if they do not keep up their agreed repayments.

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In the case of a logbook loan the money borrowed is secured on the borrowers motor car logbook or the vehicle registration document. With a logbook loan you are able to borrow larger amounts of money up to 50,000 as long as your car is worth that amount of cash. The lending company will often spread the repayments over longer repayment term as long as the instalments can be met.

How You Can Qualify For A LogBook Loan

In order to qualify for a logbook loan the borrower must be over eighteen years old and be a resident in either EnglandorWales. The vehicle being used for a logbook loan will need to have no outstanding finance, and the borrower needs to be able to afford the monthly installments. A logbook loan is not dependent on the borrower having an A1 credit history as there are no credit checks required by the lender as part of the application process.

The logbook loan application process is in two parts, the first stage starts with either a phone call or by completing a web-based application form. After the lender has received the application form, they will contact you to arrange an inspection of your motor car and to see the cars logbook. At this inspection they will value your car in order to determine how much you can borrow. They may make you an offer and calculate your monthly repayments. Should you wish to proceed with their offer then they will need to see some evidence your monthly income. So that you can complete the finance arrangement the logbook loan company would require you to and sign their agreement forms and for you to leave your logbook with them. Once the paperwork is finished they provide you with the money in the way of a cheque

Benefits and Pitfalls Of A Logbook Loan

To summaries the benefits of a logbook loan, there are no appraisal of creditworthiness required to see if you are in a debt crisis, your credit report is irrelevant, self-employed individuals are accepted, up to 50,000 can be borrowed and the repayment terms can be spread over a longer period. The pitfalls to watch out for are your car can be sold if you do not keep up your monthly logbook loan repayments at all times and your vehicle must be free of any finance and you do need to be the owner of the car and have a valid vehicle logbook

If you’re considering applying for a logbook loan or payday loan you must tread with caution and only consider this option if all the other avenues are closed. As a borrower you should make sure that you fully understand the amount of money you are borrowing, the interest rate being charged as well as the total amount of money to be repaid by you. It’s important that anyone borrowing money from either a logbook loan or a payday loan company should always read the small print and if you are not sure then take advice first before proceeding.

About the Author: Contributing author Mark Aucamp has been providing Talk Money Blog with regular

Money Saving advice

and comments. Mark has extensive experience in providing Debt Management, Mortgage Advice and finance solutions. He is recognised as an authority in the field of debt management and mortgage advice.


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