Submitted by: Jayne Waldorf

Maybe no other single activity really embraces camaraderie, playfulness and fierce but friendly competition as heartily participating in playing indoor games with friends and family. Christmas games do all those things but also serve the purpose of bringing friends and family together to interact directly with each other in a competitive and happy way.

Participating in Christmas games is another way of sharing, but it is also doing something tangible to get into the festive, jolly and relaxed mode for the holidays. Otherwise, its easy to get caught up in all the preparation and shopping and become ridden with anxiety. Here are some holiday and Christmas games that will cause fierce but friendly competition and leave everyone in a jolly mood.

For the ‘Gift Wrap’ game, items needed will be small gifts, wrapping paper, scotch tape and music that can be turned on and off at will. Each gift item is wrapped in several layers of paper. The number of layers used will depend on the duration you want the game to last. A gift is given to the group which should start passing around the gift when the music starts. Whenever the music stops, whoever has the gift should start to unwrap the gift until the music starts again. Who ever unwraps the last piece of paper gets to keep the gift. When I was I child we called this game Pass the Parcel.

The items needed for the ‘Sock Guessing’ Christmas game are two or three thick new thermal socks, items used or seen during Christmas, pens, pencils and paper.Each sock is stuffed with 20-25 items that are used or seen during the Christmas season. These can be useful items such as scotch tape, ornaments, decorations etc. Each sock should have the same items and the opening should be tied with a ribbon so the contents inside aren’t visible. The socks are then passed around for each person to try to feel and guess the items then write down what they think is in the sock. The person with the most correct guesses of objects is the winner and can be awarded a separate special gift or token.

The ‘Gift Grab Card Game’ needs two decks of cards and a few small Christmas gifts that are wrapped to look very interesting and enticing. One deck of cards is passed out one at a time to guests. Each should have an equal number of cards from the deck. The gifts are then placed in the centre of the group. Someone then calls out cards from the second deck. Whoever has an identical card gets to choose a gift. When all the gifts are taken, everyone can steal gifts from each other until the deck is finished and those with gifts get to open and keep them as prizes. The fun increases when the stealing begins because everyone will have different ideas about which gift looks interesting and try to hang onto it by stealing it over and over if it is stolen. Some people will also try to disguise the fact they have a gift, although they should be kept in sight.

A children’s Christmas game is ‘Pin the Nose on the Reindeer,’ which is the Christmas game version of ‘Pin the tail on the Donkey.’ The items needed are a drawing of a reindeer’s head with an incomplete drawing of the nose and several noses with the names on one side and tape on the other. The picture should be placed against a wall so that children can reach the nose. Each child then gets a nose. They take turns being blindfolded spun around a couple times to disorient them a little then told to walk to the reindeer and place the nose on the picture. The child who places the nose closes to the reindeer’s nose wins.

A delightful Christmas game for work is the ‘Match the Desk to the Item’ game. A day or so before the Christmas party at work, someone needs to secretly take one item from each person’s desk and assign a number to each item. At the party, all the items are displayed for everyone to guess whose desk the item belongs to. The game you play is really quite unimportant, its the fun you have that counts.

About the Author: Jayne Waldorf lives in Cheshire,England.She has been an internet marketer for over two years and she loves all things related to Christmas.If you would like more information on Christmas,Christmas Activities,Christmas Food and Drink or great gift ideas please visit

Jayne’s Christmas Web Site

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Russian submarine rescued by Royal Navy

Sunday, August 7, 2005

A Russian submarine trapped during a training exercise in Berezov Bay, 75 km south of Petropavlovsk in Kamchatka, has been rescued after it was cut free by a Royal Navy Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The crew of seven officers and midshipmen, who spent three days in temperatures around 6oC and were running out of oxygen supplies, were unharmed.

The submarine appeared on the surface at 4:15 p.m. local time. “The crew opened the hatch and climbed the rescue ship’s deck on their own,” said Admiral Victor Fyedorov. The first aid to the crew was given on ship Alagez, and they were transferred to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka hospital.

The British Scorpio ROV cut fishing nets and debris, freeing the trapped submarine. “The rescue operation was completed successfully. We thank everyone, and especially the British rescue crew,” said Fyedorov.

The submarine will be repaired and modernized. “After salvaging it, AS-28 will be carried on one of the rescue ship’s decks to the coast, where specialists will examine it,” said a spokesperson of VMS (“Company for secondary metal and boats”). Russian President Vladimir Putin has pledged an inquiry into the incident.

The United States and Japan also sent equipment to help in the rescue. However, it was not used.

  • Vyacheslav Milashevskiy (???????? ???????????), captain-lieutenant
  • Antoliy Popov (???????? ?????), navigator
  • Sergey Belezerov (?????? ?????????)
  • Alexandr Uybin (????????? ?????)
  • Alexandr Ivanov (????????? ??????)
  • Valeriy Lepotyuha (??????? ????????)
  • Henadiy Polonin (???????? ???????)

" href="http://www.troop381.org/stanford-physicists-print-smallest-ever-letters-su-at-subatomic-level-of-1-5-nanometres-tall-2/" rel="bookmark">
Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.

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Cruise ship sinks off Greek coast, two missing

Thursday, April 5, 2007

An evacuation operation was carried out today as a cruise ship ran aground off the coast of Santorini, a Greek island, leaving up to 1,167 passengers and 391 crew to abandon the ship.

The Sea Diamond took on water and listed twelve degrees after running aground, but had been stabilized. Fifteen hours after the grounding, the ship sank.

Cruise operator Louis Cruise Lines had announced earlier that all passengers and crew were accounted for. Officials are now reporting that two passengers are missing. A 45-year-old man, Jean-Christophe Allain, and his 16-year-old daughter, Maud, were reported missing by family members also on the cruise, according to a merchant marine ministry official.

BBC journalist Malcolm Brabant reported that the missing passengers had been in a lower-deck cabin when the ship ran aground. Allain’s wife and son escaped safely to the upper decks.

Most of the passengers on board the Sea Diamond ship are either American or German. Local news reported that the ship is taking on water after striking a reef in the volcanic island’s lagoon, similar to a lake, and issued a distress signal, launching an operation that led more than a dozen ships and five Greek Navy helicopters to evacuate all the people on board, with many boarding a small ferry.

The ship was about one nautical mile – 1.8km – from the island’s coast when it ran aground. The ship’s operators, Louis Cruise Lines, earlier said that a “controlled evacuation” was underway, but that “there is no danger to passengers”. The ship had left the Athenian port of Piraeus on Monday for a five-day tour of the islands. The sea was calm when the incident occurred.

“Some passengers have already reached the island and no-one has been hurt,” an official at the Santorini coastguard has said, whilst Merchant Marine Minister Manolis Kefaloyiannis said to reporters, “Thankfully, everything has gone well so far. Emergency services responded very quickly and very well.”

Mahesh Babu Aagadu Review}

Read An Opinion On:

Submitted by: Hipolito Fonteno

Cast: Mahesh babu , Tamanna , Sonu Sood , Brahmanandam and Others

Directed by : Sriinu Vaitla

Produced by : Gopi, Ram, Anil

Banner :14 Reels Entertainments

YouTube Preview Image

Music by : SS Thaman

Release Date : 2014-09-19

Encounter ?specialist ?Shankar (Mahesh Babu) is posted to a small town called Bukkapattanam. The entire area is dominated by a ?dreaded don called Damodar (Sonu Sood),? who runs illegal businesses by threatening the poor. Shankar decides to take ?things in his hands, and starts ?planning ?Damodar’s decline. ?Midway through, he comes to know about a shocking truth about Damodar, which relates back to his family.

What is that truth ? How does Shankar manage to destroy Damodar? and his empire ? and Where does Saroja(Tamannah) and Delhi Suri(Brahmanandam) fit in this entire set up ?. To know answers to all these questions, you need to watch the film on big screen.

First half of the movie is dedicated to comedians like Raghubabu, Prabhas Seenu, Posani Krishnamurali, Vennela Kishore and others. However, Nazar’s comedy act as a noisy and jealous SI working under CI Mahesh enthralls all the way. His comedy timing is fantastic and in tune with the lead hero. Second half should be credited to Brahmanandam, as he steals the show yet again. However, there is not much ‘characterization’ and ‘comedy’ written for him like in earlier Sreenu Vaitla movies.

He has given excellent entertainment besides comedy, action and punch. He has enlivened in the emotional and sentiment scenes quite superbly. The film is watch worthy just for Mahesh more than five to six times. Tmanna has added wonderful aesthetic spectacle by adding her glamour in every frame. Brahmanandam, Posani, Ashish Vidyardhi, Mumtaz, Raghubabu, etc had added a very good wit and humor. Nazar has Dakshinamurthy has enacted a wonderful comedy. Sreenu Vaitla knows how to show Mahesh to grab the audiences attention and interest for the film. Akin to Dookudu, he has made the film rich with comedy, punch and action with Mahesh. If the revenge theme was done slightly different from Dookudu, probably people would have more enjoyed Mahesh’s Aagadu. Guhan’s cinematography is a big asset for the film.Some more care should have been taken at rerecording stage.Editing is fine. Art is superb in every frame. The fourteen reels production house has spent a lot of money on the film making.Production values are excellent. It is a festival for the fans of Mahesh Babu.

Sonu Sood as the main villain is just okay. Brahmanandam makes an entry in the second half and his comedy works in parts. His dance sequence where he imitates NTR, Charan, Mahesh and Allu Arjun is funny. Rajendra Prasad has a dignified role and Nasser did an unusual character. Vennela Kishore, Raghu Babu, Posani Krishna Murali and others have done their bit. Shruti Haasan sizzled in the item song.

There are a few drawbacks in the film, like the hasty climax. There are some forced comedy scenes before the climax as well, where Brahmanandam dances on different songs. In this film you can see the typical kind of Srinu Vaitla treatment of the subject and comedy, so one can predict what will happen next. The first half of the film is full of entertainment, but the director couldn’t maintain the same tempo in the second half. Rajendra Prasad’s character should have got more screen time as he limited to just a cameo.

About the Author: Read Aagadu Telugu Movie Review, Aagadu Review, Telugu Movie Aagadu Review and Rating, Aagadu Movie Review, Aagadu Movie Stills and more Telugu Movie Reviewson

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Category:Music

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Category:Music
Author: 7d5xMW

27 Jul

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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall
Author: 7d5xMW

26 Jul

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.

News briefs:July 29, 2010

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News briefs:July 29, 2010
Author: 7d5xMW

26 Jul

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How To Choose A Truck Delivery Company}

Submitted by: Matthew Leblanc Garcia

If you require your trucks or heavy vehicles to be transported from one place to another may it be from within city limits, city to city or interstate it is a good idea to hire a professional truck delivery company. But before you do so there are few points you must keep in mind like:

Insurance

Truck delivery is extremely important as that ensures that when the vehicles are in the custody of the moving company, and if they get damaged, then the company is liable to pay you compensation for the damages. On road there are many types of risks and it is better you are guarded against these unforeseen events than pay a hefty amount at a later date. So when choosing, make sure the company has a good public liability insurance package and a comprehensive accident policy which has your benefits in mind.

Services

You will then have to see if they offer the services for which you want to hire them. For example you might want them to deliver the truck delivery on a public holiday, but the company in consideration might not work then, thus making it a waste of time. Not all companies offer the same services so enquire beforehand.

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Experience

An important consideration is experience and how long the company has been in business. This lets you know if they have a good reputation and work ethics and also gives you the guarantee that the company and its staff have experienced the problems that can occur in this business and they know how to take care of it. Time is money and the quicker the problem is solved the better for both you and the company. If you are looking for a quality vehicle truck delivery company then you could consider the name Truck Movers. For more info please visit their website at www.truckmoves.com.au

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Referrals

Ask for referrals as it is the best way to make sure that you have a quality company on your hands. Ask amongst colleagues, friends and family as these people will only recommend the best.

Cost

Cost is an important consideration. Many might charge a high rate, but if they give you quality services and delivers your vehicles on time and in mint condition, then it is all worth the price at the end. You wouldnt want to pay a lesser rate but then later regret when you have to pay for damages or accidents.

Licenses and Permits

Make sure that the truck delivery company has all the necessary licenses and permits to operate the highways and roads with the said cargo. You need special permits which the truck delivery company is responsible for. So dont hire them if their paperwork is not in order.

If you require your trucks or heavy vehicles to be transported from one place to another may it be from within city limits, city to city or interstate it is a good idea to hire a professional truck delivery company. But before you do so there are few points you must keep in mind like:

Insurance

Truck delivery is extremely important as that ensures that when the vehicles are in the custody of the moving company, and if they get damaged, then the company is liable to pay you compensation for the damages. On road there are many types of risks and it is better you are guarded against these unforeseen events than pay a hefty amount at a later date. So when choosing, make sure the company has a good public liability insurance package and a comprehensive accident policy which has your benefits in mind.

Services

You will then have to see if they offer the services for which you want to hire them. For example you might want them to deliver the truck delivery on a public holiday, but the company in consideration might not work then, thus making it a waste of time. Not all companies offer the same services so enquire beforehand.

Ads by Google

Experience

An important consideration is experience and how long the company has been in business. This lets you know if they have a good reputation and work ethics and also gives you the guarantee that the company and its staff have experienced the problems that can occur in this business and they know how to take care of it. Time is money and the quicker the problem is solved the better for both you and the company. If you are looking for a quality vehicle truck delivery company then you could consider the name Truck Movers. For more info please visit their website at www.truckmoves.com.au

Referrals

Ask for referrals as it is the best way to make sure that you have a quality company on your hands. Ask amongst colleagues, friends and family as these people will only recommend the best.

Cost

Cost is an important consideration. Many might charge a high rate, but if they give you quality services and delivers your vehicles on time and in mint condition, then it is all worth the price at the end. You wouldnt want to pay a lesser rate but then later regret when you have to pay for damages or accidents.

Licenses and Permits

Make sure that the truck delivery company has all the necessary licenses and permits to operate the highways and roads with the said cargo. You need special permits which the truck delivery company is responsible for. So dont hire them if their paperwork is not in order.

About the Author: Jamie Campbell – About the Author:Jamie Campbell has worked in the moving business for the past 12 years and is a well respected name in the field. He likes to share his experiences through his articles.

truckmovers.com

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Indian foreign minister injured in road accident

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Indian foreign minister injured in road accident
Author: 7d5xMW

13 Jul

Sunday, April 8, 2007

Indian external affairs minister Pranab Mukherjee has been taken to a Delhi Army Hospital after being injured in a car mishap in West Bengal. His condition is said to be stable. He has received injuries on the head and other body parts.

In statement, he said he would be back at work soon: “I am well but doctors have advised me 48 hours rest. I hope to be back to work after that period,” the Press Trust of India reported.

Mukherjee is one of the senior most politicians in the ruling Congress Party and is close to party supremo Sonia Gandhi. In a cabinet reshuffle in October last year, Mukherjee had been given the high profile post of India’s foreign minister which was lying vacant after the resignation of Natwar Singh. Until then he had been the minister for defence.

In view of this accident Mukherjee’s two day visit to Saudi Arabia where he was expected to call upon the Saudi king has been cancelled.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh received Mukherjee at the airport when he was brought back from West Bengal.